Renoho Precision Machinery Technology Co.,Ltd: ROBOTICS and ORIGINS OF THE NAME: ROBOTICS and ORIGINS OF THE NAME The Robotic Industries Association, Cnc machining the leading trade group for the robotics industr...
ROBOTICS and ORIGINS OF THE NAME
The Robotic Industries Association, Cnc machining the leading trade group for the robotics industry, defines a robot as follows: it is a "reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks." Cnc machining This definition has become generally accepted in the United States and other Western countries. The most common form of industrial robot is made up of a single automated arm that resembles a construction crane。
ORIGINS OF THE NAME
The word "robot" was coined by Czech playwright Karel Capek (1890-1938) in his 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). Robot is spelled robota in Czech and means forced labor. The word found its way into English-language dictionaries by the mid-1920s. The word "robotics" was first used by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov (1920-92) in his 1942 story "Runaround," in which he wrote what became known as Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics: "
1. A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law." Though fictional, these laws and Asimov's robot stories were influential to Joseph Engelberger, who is arguably the most important figure in the development of industrial robots. Cnc machiningThough the word "robot" is relatively new, the concept is centuries old, and prior to the 1920s robot-like mechanisms were called automatons. In one of Noah Webster's earliest dictionaries, an automaton is defined as "A self-moving machine or one which moves by invisible springs."
The characteristics of optical fiber communication
Large capacity optical fiber communication with the communication, the attenuation is small, not afraid of lightning, anti-electromagnetic interference, corrosion resistance, Cnc machining confidentiality, reliability, and easy installation, but the relatively high investment costs, especially for inner city buried cable lines fiber laying, construction costs will be greater.
Optical fiber communication implementations in distribution networks
Optical fiber communications network formation is very flexible and can frame into a star, chain, tree, mesh, single fiber network,Cnc machining dual-fiber network, ring multi-branch, multi-ring intersection, tangent, and other multi-ring topology network.
According to the characteristics of distribution automation systems, fiber optic ring net usually made up of network and computer local area network connection, data sharing.
She Ji practical engineering, the fully take into account the special network topology power structure of communication complexity, SDH transmission systems can use up to 126 E1 (2M I) Quan cross Lian Jie He pairs the main branch of halo + more than the design of Si Xiang Guang. The basic framework of 1 to 3 SDH/STM-1 dual-fiber self-healing intersect or tangent, and when necessary, can change the way light card online upgrade SDH/STM-4. If the Bureau of the network control center is located in the geographical center of the LAN, the proposed design for the tangent to the ring to dispatch center as the cutoff point; if the Board deviated from the network control center LAN geographical center of the proposed design for the intersection ring,Cnc machining because not dispatch center intersection, in order to reliably between the adapter ring, the ring at least two points intersect each other to protect routing.
Optical Fiber Communication
Since the inception of laser and low loss optical fiber,Cnc machining optical fiber communication system with its technical and economic advantages of the rapid rise of unparalleled, and swept the globe. The system is based on optical fiber as the transmission medium to light as the carrier signal to transmit information in communication systems, applications of light wavelength of 1.0 ~ 1.μm Jing, the entire system from the electrical side machine, Optical, cable and repeaters pose. Fiber can be divided into single-mode fiber (SMF), multi-mode fiber (MMF), long-wavelength low drive bulk fiber (LMF), polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) and plastic optical fiber (POF) and so are many; commonly used for single-mode and multi-mode fiber, multimode fiber is more than light transmission mode, and single-mode fiber transmission of a light wave mode only. Single-mode fiber multimode fiber transmission distance than the length, the current general, the optical signal in the multi-mode optical fiber to be available for about 6km, the single-mode fiber transmission within 30km. Therefore, the price of single-mode optical devices than multi-mode optical devices. Practical optical fibers are usually more to strengthen the core, protecting materials, fixed materials combined to form the transmission line cable.
Fiber MODEM to be completed by optical signal and digital signal conversion between. Fiber MODEM generally have more than one data port to transfer synchronous or asynchronous signals. Cnc machining Communication speed up to 2Mbps or higher, with commonly used network communication rate is generally synchronous asynchronous 19200bps N × 64K or less. It is sufficient to meet the needs of distribution network communication。
In addition, there is a double-loop fiber optic MODEM with self-healing func- tion. This feature greatly enhance the reliability of the communication. the signal is not affected, while the main station to send the appropriate alarm and positioning signals, Cnc machining so that maintenance personnel section of cable fault repair time.
Distribution Automation requirements for communication
Cnc machining SCADA system with the same dispatch, distribution automation system also needs an effective communication network, and he has his own characteristics: the number of terminals very much. System has a large distribution network by opening and closing, power distribution transformers, circuit breakers column to monitor these devices requires a number of FTU and TTU, while the FTU with the power distribution equipment installation, wide geographical distribution, communication nodes scattered.
Distribution automation system size, complexity and automation level of the decision of the communication system should meet the following requirements:
Communications equipment distribution network systems have many exposed outdoors, bad environment, so must be able to withstand heat, cold, sun, rain, snow, hail and lightning and other natural attacks.Cnc machining Meanwhile, try to avoid all kinds of electromagnetic interference, to ensure long-term stable and reliable work, and asked when the line power failure, communication system can still work properly
Taking into account the overall economic power distribution system, communication system, investment should not be too large, and strive to make full use of the existing main network communication resources, for the Lord, the overall distribution network planning, avoid duplication of investment.
(3) addressing large:
Communication system not only to consider the present and future data needs, but also consider the upgrade requirements.
(4) two-way communication:
Distribution network automation to achieve the telemetry, remote, remote control, you must request a two-way communication capabilities.
(5) easy operation and maintenance.
According to the above requirements,Cnc machining along with fiber prices down, at present, optical fiber communication systems are widely used in electric power.
Optical fiber communication in power distribution automation applications on paper
The first phase in the evolution of Cnc machining communication networks is dominated by the wide spread of telephony and covers over 90 years . However ,the telegraph preceded the telephone by more than 30 years and the teletypewriter by half a century . In1844, Samuel Morse , the telegraph’s inventor ,sent the first telegraph message from Washington D.C. to his coleague Afred Vail in Baltimore, Maryland. Shortly after the invention of the telephone by Alexander Grahan Bell in 1876 ,it was realized that telephone wires had to converge on central points where telephone-to-telephone connections could be made .These points were manual switch-board, Staffed by operator .This was followed by the introduction of electromechanical switching and in 1889,Almond B.Strowger invented the first two-motion step-b-step switch.
The golden age of automatic telephony occurred after Word War ∏ when the entire long-distance network was automated .
The invention of the transistor spurred the application of Electronics to switching systems and led to the deployment of the first electronic switching in the late 1950s . Electronic switching made it possible to design and build switches with greater capacity.
The second phase of networking ,which occurred in the 1960s ,included three major milestones:software switching ,digital transmission ,and satellite deployment.
The third phase of the evolution of communication networks occurred in the 1970s and is characterized by the introduction of data networks and packer switching technology. To achieve compatibility between computers and packet-switched network ,the international Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT from the French acronym established a word-standard protocol, called X.25 in 1976. This phase of networking is also characterized by the introduction and wide acceptance of local area networks(LANs). The invention of the laser (which stands for light amplification by simulated emission of radiation ) in 1959 led to major technical developments in the field of optical communication. 1970, Corning Glass Works reported on the first low-loss optical fiber (dopedsilica clad fiber ) that achieved 20 dB/km loss.
The fourth phase of communication networking ,which began in 1980, is
characterized by the availability of the integrated services digital networks (ISDN) and mobile communications.
With the development of national economy and people's living standards improve, people's growing demand for electricity, while the reliability and power quality of power supply put forward higher requirements. Feeder Automation is the reliability of power supply distribution network systems to improve the most direct and effective means of technology. Countries has increased in recent years on the city network and the transformation of rural power network, power supply bureaus of the major domestic investment in distribution automation is also increasing. Achieved in the distribution network automation process, we found that communication problems is a difficult problem. In this, just from the fiber-optic communication networks in automation applications with little knowledge about and experience.
CNC Machine Tools Return troubleshooting
Manual reference point return operation of the machine coordinate system is built on thepremise, most of the first CNC machine is turned on manually operated actions are generally the reference point.Cnc machining If the reference point back to the failure processing program will not be able to return the position of the reference point will not affect the accuracy of machining accuracy, or even crash.
Analysis and excluded the issue back to the reference point of failure is necessary.
1. Back to the main types of reference point of failure
A CNC machine operator training center has 20 CNC machine tools, and is purchased in batches, the system more types of students training in the operation, there have been back several times reference point of failure, through the timely analysis was excluded.
According to experience,Cnc machining different systems in different models of CNC machine tools, there back to the reference point of failure, mainly in the following five categories: super-way there and the police; back less than a reference point, the reference point indicator does not light; back to the reference point instability; back to the whole pitch offset reference point; back to the reference point the alarm, and alarm information.
2. Back to the reference point troubleshooting
The process occurs over and the police, divided into two cases. One case is the reference point before the position of the axes from the reference point resulting from too small. Lift overtravel protection, and will move to the travel axis within the scope of the reference point to re-operation, to troubleshooting; other is the "reference point deceleration" block loose or change position due to failure to re-adjust the fixed block to be troubleshooting.
Back to the reference point due to the amount of the reference point indicator is off. Diagnostic capabilities through the machine in the diagnosis of the page under the corresponding "Location tracking error" (dgn800 ~ 802) to check if the positioning accuracy of the tracking error exceeds the permissible range, you can adjust the servo drive, "offset" potentiometer so that the " Position tracking error "(dgn800802) value close to" 0 ", you can troubleshoot.
There reference point for the unstable failure, first check the location and block exposure, and then check the pulse encoder "zero pulse" if there are problems, the last check the gap between the motor and lead screw. If the unstable displacement error is small, usually among the last case, the gap should be eliminated to remove a loose connection.
Reference point the whole pitch shift. When the workpiece is always stable displacement error occurred, and exactly equal to the screw pitch, then the problem lies in the back reference point. Reference points are generally located in the "reference point slow down" after the opening of the first block of a "zero pulse" on. If the block release, the encoder happens in the "zero pulse" in the vicinity, there will be a whole pitch shift. Need to re-adjust the deceleration stop position, preferably slow release position and the block encoder "zero pulse" position, a difference of half a pitch.
Back to the reference point for the alarm, and fault alarm. For alarm information, view the machine instructions for the appropriate treatment. Message alert may belong to: encoder "zero pulse" and the system grating bad bad bad shield, the system parameter setting error and other failures. Cnc machining For the hardware bad need of repair or replacement; for parameter setting error, you need to reset the parameters by backups.
NC system maintenance
1.Strictly abide by the rules and routine maintenance of the system
2. Numerical control device to prevent dust from entering
Floating dust and metal powder easily lead to decreased Cnc machining insulation resistance between components, which failure or even damage to components.
3. CNC cabinet cooling time cleaning the ventilation system
4. Regular monitoring system of mains voltage NC
Rated grid voltage in the range 85% to 110%.
5. Periodic replacement of storage batteries
6. When not in NC long-term maintenance of the system
Often to the NC system power or to run the warm machine program CNC machine tools.
7. Spare circuit board to maintain the maintenance of mechanical Cnc machining components Maintenance of mechanical parts
1. Tool and maintenance of mechanical hand tool change
① Tool to manually upload tool, to ensure that equipment in place to check the reliability of the locking blade seat;
② strictly prohibited overweight, long knives into the knife, to prevent the robot tool change out a knife or cutting tool and workpiece, fixtures and other collision;
③ The Tool Selection should be noted that the order placed in the magazine on the tool order is correct. Other options should also take note of the way Cutter number for the tool is consistent with the required tools to prevent the wrong tool for the accident cause;
④ keeping a clean tool holder and tool pocket;
⑤ always check the magazine's back to zero position is correct, check the spindle back to the tool change position is in place, and adjusting, or can not complete the tool change operation;
⑥ boot, should be made and the mechanical hand tool storage space to run, check each part is working properly, especially the limit switch and solenoid valve can operate normally.
2. Maintenance of ball screw
① periodic inspection, adjustment screw nut axial clearance, to ensure the accuracy and axial stiffness of the reverse drive;
② periodically check the screw connections support and the bed is loose and the support bearings for damage. If these problems to tighten the loose parts in a timely manner, the replacement of support bearings;
③ The grease of the ball screw, lead screw washed once every six months old on the oil, replace oil. The ball screw with lubricating oil, grease once a day before work machine;
④ hard to avoid dust or chips into the screw shields, and the work process crashing shields, protective devices should be replaced whenever damaged.
3. Maintenance of the main drive chain
① adjusted periodically with the tightness of the spindle drive;
② to prevent all kinds of impurities into the fuel tank. Replaced once a year oil;
③ Connect the handle to keep the spindle area clean. The need for timely adjustment of the hydraulic cylinder and piston displacement;
④ To adjust the weight in time.
4. Hydraulic system maintenance
① or replacement of oil filter on a regular basis;
② control the temperature of the hydraulic system oil;
③ to prevent leakage of hydraulic system;
④ tank and pipe cleaning regularly checked;
⑤ routine point inspection system.
5. Cnc machining Pneumatic system maintenance
① remove air impurities and moisture;
② Check the oil mist system, the fuel supply;
③ to maintain the tightness of the system;
④ attention to regulating the working pressure;
⑤ cleaning or replacement of pneumatic components, filters;
Classification by control
Open-loop control; that position feedback devices without control.
Semi-closed loop control; Cnc machining refers to the open-loop control with servo motor shaft angular displacement detecting device, by detecting the servo motor to detect indirectly the corner of the displacement of moving parts back to the NC device comparator compares the input command, with the difference value controls the moving parts.
Closed-loop control; is in the final of the moving parts of machine corresponding direct linear or rotary position detection device, will be directly measured value of
displacement or angular displacement feedback to the CNC device with comparator
compares the input command shift, Cnc machining with the difference value control moving parts, so
that moving parts in strict accordance with the actual needs of the displacement。
● control of machines by the number of performance categories
Economical CNC machine tools;
Mid-range of CNC machine tools;
High-end CNC machine tools;
● CNC equipment used by way of fractional composition of
Hard-line numerical control system;
Soft-line numerical control system;
Maintenance of CNC machine tools
Overview of CNC machine tool maintenance
Components and parts to extend wear life cycle, prevention of failure and improve the CNC machine tools, the average time between failures and service life. CNC machine tools in use should be noted that the problem
1. The use of CNC machine tools environment
CNC machine tools the best place for them away from the constant temperature and vibration environment of the larger equipment (such as the punch) and electromagnetic interference equipment.
2. Power Requirements
3. Practice for CNC machine tools should be
Regular maintenance, maintenance, Cnc machining failure of attention to such records to protect the scene.
4. Not long-term storage of CNC machine tools
5. Attention to training and equipment operators, maintenance personnel and programming staff.
Characteristics of CNC machine tools
CNC machine operation and monitoring of all completed in the numerical control unit,Cnc machining which is the brains of CNC machine tools. Compared with the general machine tools,
CNC machine tools has the following characteristics:
● high precision, stable processing quality;
● can be multi-axis linkage, can process complex shape parts;
● processing part changes, generally only need to change the NC program, saving the production time to prepare;
● high precision
machine tool itself, rigidity, can choose the amount of benefit processing, production rate (usually as an ordinary machine 3 to 5 times);
● high degree of automation tools, can reduce labor intensity;
● the quality of the operators require a higher tech
nical requirements on higher maintenance staff
CNC machine tools generally consists of the following components:
● host, he is the subject of CNC machine tools, including machine tools, column, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical parts. He is used to complete a variety of machining mechanical parts.
● CNC equipment, CNC machine tools is the core, including the hardware (printed circuit boards, CRT monitors,Cnc machining key boxes, paper tape reader, etc.) and the corresponding
software for digital input part program, and complete the input information storage, data transformation, interpolation operations and achieve a variety of control functions.
● drive, he was the implementing agencies CNC drive components, including the spindle
drive unit, feed unit, spindle motor and feed motor. He was under the control of the NC
device electrical or electro-hydraulic servo system to achieve through the spindle and feed drive. When several feed linkage, you can complete the position, line, plane curves and space curves processing.
● assist device, the index control machine tools necessary supporting components to
ensure the operation of CNC machine tools, such as cooling, chip removal, lubrication, lighting, monitoring. It consists of hydraulic and pneumatic devices, chip equipment, pallet, NC rotary table and CNC dividing head, including tools and monitoring detection devices.
● Programming and other ancillary equipment, can be used to machine the part outside the programming and storage.
Since 1952, Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed the world since the first CNC machine tools, CNC machine tools in manufacturing industry, especially in the automotive, aerospace, Cnc machining and military industries has been widely used, digital technology both in hardware and software have rapid development.
Cnc machining is one of the most widely used methods of finishing parts to extremely close tolerances and low surface roughness.
Currently, there are grinders for almost for almost every type of grinding operation. Particular design features of a part dictate to a large degree the type of grinding machine required. Where processing costs are excessive, parts redesigned to utilize a less expensive, higher output grinding method may be well worthwhile. For example, wherever possible the production economy of center less grinding should be taken advantage of by proper design consideration.
Although grinding Cnc machining is usually considered a finishing operation, it is often employed as a complete machining process on work which can be ground down from rough condition without being turned or otherwise machined. Thus many types of forgings and other parts are finished completely with the grinding wheel at appreciable savings of time and expense. Classes of grinding machines include the following: cylindrical grinders, center less grinders, internal grinders, surface grinders, and tool and cutter grinders。
The cylindrical and center less grinders are for straight cylindrical or taper work; thus splices, shafts, and similar parts are ground on cylindrical machines either of the common-center type or the center less machine.
Thread grinders are used for grinding precision threads for thread gages, and threads on precision parts where the concentricity between the diameter of the shaft and the pitch diameter of the thread must be held to close tolerances. The internal grinders are used for grinding of precision holes, cylinder bores, and similar operations where bores of all kinds are to be finished.
The surface grinders are for finishing all kinds of flat work, or work with plain surfaces which may be operated upon either by the edge of a wheel or by the face of a grinding wheel.Cnc machining These machines may have reciprocating or rotating tables.
Automatic Tracer Lathes and Milling
Cnc machining Since surface roughness depends greatly upon material turned, tooling, and fees and speeds employed, minimum tolerances that can be held on automatic tracer lathes are not necessarily the most economical tolerances.
Is some case, tolerances of ±0.05mm are held in continuous production using but one cut. Cnc machining Groove width can be held to ±0.125mm on some parts. Bores and single-point finishes can be held to ±0.0125mm. On high-production runs where maximum output is desirable, a minimum tolerance of ±0.125mm is economical on both diameter and length of turn.
With the exceptions of turning and drilling, milling is undoubtedly the most widely used method of removing metal. Well suited and readily adapted to the economical production of any quantity of parts, the almost unlimited versatility of the milling process merits the attention and consideration of designers seriously concerned with the manufacture of their product.
As in any other process, parts that have to be milled should be designed with economical tolerances that can be achieved in production milling. Cnc machining If the part is designed with tolerances finer than necessary, additional operations will have to be added to achieve these tolerances——and this will increase the cost of the part.
Turning The engine lathe, Cnc machining one of the oldest metal removal machines, has a number of useful and highly desirable attributes. Today these lathes are used primarily in small shops where smaller quantities rather than large production runs are encountered.
The engine lathe has been replaced in today's production shops by a wide variety of automatic lathes such as automatic of single-point tooling for maximum metal removal, and the use of form tools for finish and accuracy, are now at the designer's fingertips with production speeds on a par with the fastest processing equipment on the scene today.
Tolerances for the engine lathe depend primarily on the skill of the operator. The design engineer must be careful in using tolerances of an experimental part that has been produced on the engine lathe by a skilled operator. Cnc machining In redesigning an experimental part for production, economical tolerances should be used.
Production machining equipment must be evaluated now, more than ever before, in terms of ability to repeat accurately and rapidly. Applying this criterion for establishing the production qualification of a specific method, the turret lathe merits a high rating.
In designing for low quantities such as 100 or 200 parts, it is most economical to use the turret lathe. In achieving the optimum tolerances possible on the turret lathe, the designer should strive for a minimum of operations.
Automatic Screw Machines
Generally, automatic screw machines fall into several categories; single-spindle automatics, multiple-spindle automatics and automatic chucking machines. Originally designed for rapid, automatic production of screws and similar threaded parts,Cnc machining the automatic screw machine has long since exceeded the confines of this narrow field, and today plays a vital role in the mass production of a variety of precision parts. Quantities play an important part in the economy of the parts machined on the automatic to set up on the turret lathe than on the automatic screw machine. Quantities less than 1000 parts may be more economical to set up on the turret lathe than on the automatic screw machine. The cost of the parts machined can be reduced if the minimum economical lot size is calculated and the proper machine is selected for these quantities