ROBOTICS and ORIGINS OF THE NAME
The Robotic Industries Association, Cnc machining the leading trade group for the robotics industry, defines a robot as follows: it is a "reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks." Cnc machining This definition has become generally accepted in the United States and other Western countries. The most common form of industrial robot is made up of a single automated arm that resembles a construction crane。
ORIGINS OF THE NAME
The word "robot" was coined by Czech playwright Karel Capek (1890-1938) in his 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). Robot is spelled robota in Czech and means forced labor. The word found its way into English-language dictionaries by the mid-1920s. The word "robotics" was first used by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov (1920-92) in his 1942 story "Runaround," in which he wrote what became known as Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics: "
1. A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law." Though fictional, these laws and Asimov's robot stories were influential to Joseph Engelberger, who is arguably the most important figure in the development of industrial robots. Cnc machiningThough the word "robot" is relatively new, the concept is centuries old, and prior to the 1920s robot-like mechanisms were called automatons. In one of Noah Webster's earliest dictionaries, an automaton is defined as "A self-moving machine or one which moves by invisible springs."