Shaper, Planer, Milling and Grinding Machines
Precision metal parts Shapers are machine tools used primarily in the production of flat and angular surfaces. In addition, the shaper is used to machine irregular shapes and contours which are difficult to produce on other machine tools. Internal as well as external surfaces and shapes can be produced on the shaper. Common shapes produced on the shaper are flat, angular, grooves, dovetails, T-slots, keyways, slots, serrations, and contours. Single-point cutting tools similar to the type used on the lathe are used in machining most surfaces on the shaper. Contour surfaces can be produced with either a single-point tool or a formed cutting tool. When using a single-point cutting tool for contour surfaces, the depth of cut must be constantly regulated by the machine operator to achieve the proper contour . Profilingattachments can be used on some shapers to regulate the feed motion and provide duplication of other parts. Numerical control units also enable the production of irregular surfaces with constant regulation of the depth of cut.
Shapers are classified by the plane in which the cutting action occurs, either horizontal or vertical. In addition the horizontal-type shapers are further classified as push or pull cut. A push-cut shaper cuts while the ram is pushing the tool across the work, and a pull cut machine removes material while the tool is pulled toward the machine. Vertical shapers use a pushing-type cutting action and are sometimes referred to as slotters or keyseaters.
Precision metal parts Planers are similar to shapers because both machines are primarily used to produce flat and angular surfaces. However, planers are capable of accommodating much larger work- pieces than the shaper. In planer operations the workpiece is mounted on the table which reciprocates in a horizontal plane providing a straight-line cutting and feed action. Single-point cutting tools are mounted on an overhead cross rail and along the vertically supported columns. The cutting tools are fed into or away from the workpiece on either the horizontal or vertical plane, thus being capable of four straight-line feed motions. Cutting speeds are slow on the planer because of the workpiece size and type of cutting tool being used. In order to increase the production of the planer, multiple tooling stations are employed. Two tooling stations are located on the overhead cross rails, with usually one tooling station on the vertical supports. Another method of increasing production on the planer is to mount a number of workpieces on the table at the same time. This method is only feasible when the workpieces require the same cut and are relatively small in size. The planer size is designated by the maximum workpiece capacity of the machine. The height, width, and length of the workpiece that can be accommodated on the planer's worktable varies with the type of planer.
Precision metal parts Milling machines are probably the most versatile machine tools used in modern manufacturing with the exception of the lathe. Primarily designed to produce flat and angular surfaces, the milling machine is also used to machine irregular shapes, surfaces, grooves, and slots. The milling machine can also be used for drilling, boring, reaming, and gear-cutting operations. A number of different types of milling machines are manufactured in order to serve the multitude of needs and the diverse applications. Milling machines are classified according to their structure and include column-knee, fixed bed, planer, and special machines.
Grinding machines utilize abrasive grains, bonded into various shapes and sizes of wheels and belts to be used as the cutting agent. Grinding operations are used to impart a high-quality surface finish on the workpiece. In addition, the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece is improved since tolerances of 0.00001 in. [0. 00025mm] are possible in grinding operations. Both internal and external surfaces can be ground by using the variety of grinding machines available. Related operations—which use abrasivesin various forms such as paste, powder, and grains—include lapping, honing, and drum finishing.
Grinding machines are classified according to the type of surface produced. Common surfaces and classifications of grinding machines are surface, cylindrical, and special machines.