Intelligent Robots and Visional Sensory
A new phase in robot applications has been opened with the development of “intelligent robots”.Cnc machining An intelligent robot is basically one that must be capable of sensing its surrounding and possesses intelligence enough to respond to a changing to a changing environment in much the same way as we do. Such ability requires the direct application of sensory perception and artificial intelligence. Much of research in robotics has been and is still concerned with how to equip robots with visual sensors—eyes and tactile sensors—the “fingers”. Artificial intelligence will enable the robot to respond to and adapt to changes in its task and in its environment, and to reason and made decisions in reaction to those changes
Much effort has been made to simulate similar human sensory abilities for intelligent robots. Among them, vision is the most important sense as it is estimated that up go 80% of sensory information is received by vision. Vision can be bestowed on robotic systems by using imaging sensors in various ways. For improving accuracy of performances,Cnc machining it can help precisely adjust the robot hand by means of optical feedback control using visual sensors. Determining the location, orientation, and recognition of the parts to be picked up is another important application
Among the vision system, one of the key components is imagery sensor. The imagery sensor of a robot system is defined as an electro-optical device that converts an optical image to a video signal. The image sensor is usually either a TV-camera of a solid state sensory device, for example, charge-couple devices (CCD). The latter device offers greater .sensitivity, long endurance and lightweight, and is thus welcome when compared with the TV-camera. The camera system contains not only the camera detector but also, and very importantly, a lens system. The lens determines the field of view, the depth of focus, and other optical factors that directly affect the quality of the image detected by the camera.
Either TV-camera or CCDs produce an image by generating an analogue value on every pixel, proportional to its light intensity. To enable a digital computer to work with this signal, an analogue-to-digital (A/D) converter is needed to transfer analogue into digital data, then store in random access memory (RAM), installed in computer. The computer analyzes the data and extracts such imagery information as edges, regions, Cnc machining colors and textures of the objects in the image. Finally, the computer interprets or understands what the image represents in terms of knowledge about the scene and gives the robot a symbolic description of its environment.