Introduction of Machining
Speed and Feeds in Machining Speeds, feeds, China precision machining and depth of cut are the three major variables for economical machining. Other variables are the work and tool materials, coolant and geometry of the cutting tool. The rate of metal removal and power required for machining depend upon these variables.The depth of cut, feed, and cutting speed are machine settings that must be established in any metal-cutting operation. They all affect the forces, the power, and the rate of metal removal. They can be defined by comparing them to the needle and record of a phonograph. China precision machining The cutting speed (V) is represented by the velocity of- the record surface relative to the needle in the tone arm at any instant. Feed is represented by the advance of the needle radially inward per revolution, or is the difference in position between two adjacent grooves. The depth of cut is the penetration of the needle into the record or the depth of the grooves.
Turning on Lathe Centers
The basic operations performed on an engine lathe are illustrated. Those operations performed on external surfaces with a single point cutting tool are called turning. Except for drilling, reaming, and lapping, the operations on internal surfaces are also performed by a single point cutting tool.
All machining operations, including turning and boring, can be classified as roughing, finishing, or semi-finishing. The objective of a roughing operation is to remove the bulk of the material as rapidly and as efficiently as possible, while leaving a small amount of material on the work-piece for the finishing operation. Finishing operations are performed to obtain the final size, shape, and surface finish on the workpiece. Sometimes a semi-finishing operation will precede the finishing operation to leave a small predetermined and uniform amount of stock on the work-piece to be removed by the finishing operation.
Generally, longer workpieces are turned while supported on one or two lathe centers. Cone shaped holes, called center holes, which fit the lathe centers are drilled in the ends of the workpiece-usually along the axis of the cylindrical part. The end of the workpiece adjacent to the tailstock is always supported by a tailstock center, while the end near the headstock may be supported by a headstock center or held in a chuck. The headstock end of the workpiece may be held in a four-jaw chuck, or in a type chuck. This method holds the workpiece firmly and transfers the power to the workpiece smoothly; the additional support to the workpiece provided by the chuck lessens the tendency for chatter to occur when cutting. Precise results can be obtained with this method if care is taken to hold the workpiece accurately in the chuck.
Very precise results can be obtained by supporting the workpiece between two centers. A lathe dog is clamped to the workpiece; together they are driven by a driver plate mounted on the spindle nose. One end of the Workpiece is mecained;then the workpiece can be turned around in the lathe to machine the other end. The center holes in the workpiece serve as precise locating surfaces as well as bearing surfaces to carry the weight of the workpiece and to resist the cutting forces. After the workpiece has been removed from the lathe for any reason, the center holes will accurately align the workpiece back in the lathe or in another lathe, or in a cylindricalgrinding machine. The workpiece must never be held at the headstock end by both a chuck and a lathe center. While at first thought this seems like a quick method of aligning the workpiece in the chuck, this must not be done because it is not possible to press evenly with the jaws against the workpiece while it is also supported by the center. The alignment provided by the center will not be maintained and the pressure of the jaws may damage the center hole, the lathe center, and perhaps even the lathe spindle. Compensating or floating jaw chucks used almost exclusively on high production work provide an exception to the statements made above. These chucks are really work drivers and cannot be used for the same purpose as ordinary three or four-jaw chucks.
While very large diameter workpieces are sometimes mounted on two centers, they are preferably held at the headstock end by faceplate jaws to obtain the smooth power transmission; moreover, large lathe dogs that are adequate to transmit the power not generally available, although they can be made as a special. Faceplate jaws are like chuck jaws except that they are mounted on a faceplate, which has less overhang from the spindle bearings than a large chuck would have.
Introduction of Machining
Machining as a shape-producing method is the most universally used and the most important of all manufacturing processes. Machining is a shape-producing process in which a power-driven device causes material to be removed in chip form. Most machining is done with equipment that supports both the work piece and cutting tool although in some cases portable equipment is used with unsupported workpiece.
Low setup cost for small Quantities. Machining has two applications in manufacturing. For casting, forging, and press working, each specific shape to be produced, even one part, nearly always has a high tooling cost. The shapes that may he produced by welding depend to a large degree on the shapes of raw material that are available. By making use of generally high cost equipment but without special tooling, it is possible, by machining; to start with nearly any form of raw material, so tong as the exterior dimensions are great enough, and produce any desired shape from any material. Therefore .machining is usually the preferred method for producing one or a few parts, even when the design of the part would logically lead to casting, forging or press working if a high quantity were to be produced.
Close accuracies, good finishes. The second application for machining is based on the high accuracies and surface finishes possible. Many of the parts machined in low quantities would be produced with lower but acceptable tolerances if produced in high quantities by some other process. On the other hand, many parts are given their general shapes by some high quantity deformation process and machined only on selected surfaces where high accuracies are needed
Internal threads, for example,China precision machining are seldom produced by any means other than machining and small holes in press worked parts may be machined following the press working operations