Machining Wears of Cutting Tool
China precision machining Discounting brittle fracture and edge chipping, which have already been dealt with, tool wear is basically of three types. Flank wear, crater wear, and notch wear. Flank wear occurs on both the major and the minor cutting edges. On the major cutting edge, which is responsible for bulk metal removal, these results in increased cutting forces and higher temperatures which if left unchecked can lead to vibration of the tool and workpiece and a condition where efficient cutting can no longer take place. On the minor cutting edge, which determines workpiece size and surface finish, flank wear can result in an oversized product which has poor surface finish. Under most practical cutting conditions, the tool will fail due to major flank wear before the minor flank wear is sufficiently large to result in the manufacture of an unacceptable component.
Because of the stress distribution on the tool face, the frictional stress in the region of sliding contact between the chip and the face is at a maximum at the start of the sliding contact region and is zero at the end. Thus abrasive wear takes place in this region with more wear taking place adjacent to the seizure region than adjacent to the point at which the chip loses contact with the face. China precision machining This result in localized pitting of the tool face some distance up the face which is usually referred to as catering and which normally has a section in the form of a circular arc. In many respects and for practical cutting conditions, crater wear is a less severe form of wear than flank wear and consequently flank wear is a more common tool failure criterion. However, since various authors have shown that the temperature on the face increases more rapidly with increasing cutting speed than the temperature on the flank, and since the rate of wear of any type is significantly affected by changes in temperature, crater wear usually occurs at high cutting speeds.
At the end of the major flank wear land where the tool is in contact with the uncut workpiece surface it is common for the flank wear to be more pronounced than along the rest of the wear land. This is because of localised effects such as a hardened layer on the uncut surface caused by work hardening introduced by a previous cut, an oxide scale, and localised high temperatures resulting from the edge effect. This localised wear is usually referred to as notch wear and occasionally is very severe. Although the presence of the notch will not significantly affect the cutting properties of the tool, the notch is often relatively deep and if cutting were to continue there would be a good chance that the tool would fracture.
If any form of progressive wear allowed to continue, dramatically and the tool would fail catastrophically, i. e. the tool would be no longer capable of cutting and, at best, the workpiece would be scrapped whilst, at worst, damage could be caused to the machine tool. For carbide cutting tools and for all types of wear, the tool is said to have reached the end of its useful life long before the onset of catastrophic failure. For high-speed-steel cutting tools, however, where the wear tends to be non-uniform it has been found that the most meaningful and reproducible results can be obtained when the wear is allowed to continue to the onset of catastrophic failure even though, of course, in practice a cutting time far less than that to failure would be used. China precision machiningThe onset of catastrophic failure is characterized by one of several phenomena, the most common being a sudden increase in cutting force, the presence of burnished rings on the workpiece, and a significant increase in the noise level.