Primary Cutting Parameters
China CNC machining The basic tool-work relationship in cutting is adequately described by means of four factors: tool geometry, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut.
The cutting tool must be made of an appropriate material; it must be strong, tough, hard, and wear resistant. The tool s geometry characterized by planes and angles, must be correct for each cutting operation. Cutting speed is the rate at which the work surface passes by the cutting edge. It may be expressed in feet per minute.
For efficient machining the cutting speed must be of a magnitude appropriate to the particular work-tool combination. In general, the harder the work material, the slower the speed.
Feed is the rate at which the cutting tool advances into the workpiece. "Where the workpiece or the tool rotates, feed is measured in inches per revolution. When the tool or the work reciprocates, feed is measured in inches per stroke, Generally, feed varies inversely with cutting speed for otherwise similar conditions.
The depth of cut, measured inches is the distance the tool is set into the work. It is the width of the chip in turning or the thickness of the chip in a rectilinear cut. In roughing operations, the depth of cut can be larger than for finishing operations.
The Effect of Changes in Cutting Parameters on Cutting Temperatures
In metal cutting operations heat is generated in the primary and secondary deformation zones and these results in a complex temperature distribution throughout the tool, workpiece and chip. A typical set of isotherms is shown in figure where
it can be seen that, as could be expected, there is a very large temperature gradient throughout the width of the chip as the workpiece material is sheared in primary deformation and there is a further large temperature in the chip adjacent to the face as the chip is sheared in secondary deformation. This leads to a maximum cutting temperature a short distance up the face from the cutting edge and a small distance into the chip.
Since virtually all the work done in metal cutting is converted into heat, it could be expected that factors which increase the power consumed per unit volume of metal removed will increase the cutting temperature. Thus an increase in the rake angle, all other parameters remaining constant, will reduce the power per unit volume of metal removed and the cutting temperatures will reduce. When considering increase in unreformed chip thickness and cutting speed the situation is more complex. An increase in undeformed chip thickness tends to be a scale effect where the amounts of heat which pass to the workpiece, China CNC machining the tool and chip remain in fixed proportions and the changes in cutting temperature tend to be small. Increase in cutting speedhowever, reduce the amount of heat which passes into the workpiece and this increase the temperature rise of the chip m primary deformation. Further, the secondary deformation zone tends to be smaller and this has the effect of increasing the temperatures in this zone. Other changes in cutting parameters have virtually no effect on the power consumed per unit volume of metal removed and consequently have virtually no effect on the cutting temperatures. Since it has been shown that even small changes in cutting temperature have a significant effect on tool wear rate it is appropriate to indicate how cutting temperatures can be assessed from cutting data。
The most direct and accurate method for measuring temperatures in high -speed-steel cutting tools is that of Wright &. Trent which also yields detailed information on temperature distributions in high-speed-steel cutting tools. The technique is based on the metallographic examination of sectioned high-speed-steel tools which relates microstructure changes to thermal history.
Trent has described measurements of cutting temperatures and temperature distributions for high-speed-steel tools when machining a wide range of workpiece materials. This technique has been further developed by using scanning electron microscopy to study fine-scale microstructure changes arising from over tempering of the tempered martens tic matrix of various high-speed-steels. China CNC machining This technique has also been used to study temperature distributions in both high-speed -steel single point turning tools and twist drills.